Book chapter Force-feedback-assisted Bone Drilling Simulation Based on CT Data, by Maier et al. pp. 291-296 In: Maier A., Deserno T., Handels H., Maier-Hein K., Palm C., Tolxdorff T. (eds) Bildverarbeitung für die Medizin 2018. Informatik aktuell. Springer Vieweg, Berlin, Heidelberg.
In order to fix a fracture using minimally invasive surgery approaches, surgeons are drilling complex and tiny bones with a 2 dimensional X-ray as single imaging modality in the operating room. Our novel haptic force-feedback and visual assisted training system will potentially help hand surgeons to learn the drilling procedure in a realistic visual environment. Within the simulation, the collision detection as well as the interaction between virtual drill, bone voxels and surfaces are important. In this work, the chai3d collision detection and force calculation algorithms are combined with a physics engine to simulate the bone drilling process. The chosen Bullet-Physics-Engine provides a stable simulation of rigid bodies, if the collision model of the drill and the tool holder is generated as a compound shape. Three haptic points are added to the K-wire tip for removing single voxels from the bone. For the drilling process three modes are proposed to emulate the different phases of drilling in restricting the movement of a haptic device.