Assessment of tumor margins in head and neck cancer using a 3D-navigation system based on PET/CT image-fusion

mandibular-tumor

Assessment of tumor margins in head and neck cancer using a 3D-navigation system based on PET/CT image-fusion – A pilot study, by Zrnc et al. Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery (2018).

Abstract

Objectives
Determination of tumor margins in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is mostly based on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography scans (CT). Local recurrence of disease is often correlated with the presence of positive resection margins after surgical treatment. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging plays a crucial role in the assessment of patients with SCCHN. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PET/CT could predict tumor extension.

Methods
In 12 patients who underwent surgical treatment of primary SCCHN (Stage III-IV) F18-FDG PET/CT image-fusion was performed on a 3D navigation-system based workstation. Image-guided needle biopsies were obtained from four different, color-coded metabolic areas within the tumor. The histopathological findings were correlated with findings on corresponding PET/CT scans.

Results
81.3% of biopsies from the central area were positive. Specimens taken from the outer metabolic zone were positive in 66.7% of the patients. The highest incidence of positive biopsies was found in the zone adjacent to the outermost area. There was a statistically significant difference in positive tumor histopathology when comparing the various metabolic zones (p = 0.03).

Conclusion
Exact determination of tumor is an important research topic, although results remain controversial. The results of this study suggest that in some cases PET scans may overestimate tumor extension.

Use of 3D navigation in subaxial cervical spine lateral mass screw insertion

surface-match-registration

Open access Use of 3D Navigation in Subaxial Cervical Spine Lateral Mass Screw Insertion, by Arab et al. J Neurol Surg Rep 2018; 79(01): e1-e8

Abstract
Objective Cervical spine can be stabilized by different techniques. One of the common techniques used is the lateral mass screws (LMSs), which can be inserted either by freehand techniques or three-dimensional (3D) navigation system. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the difference between the 3D navigation system and the freehand technique for cervical spine LMS placement in terms of complications. Including intraoperative complications (vertebral artery injury [VAI], nerve root injury [NRI], spinal cord injury [SCI], lateral mass fracture [LMF]) and postoperative complications (screw malposition, screw complications).

Methods Patients who had LMS fixation for their subaxial cervical spine from January 2014 to April 2015 at the Ottawa Hospital were included. A total of 284 subaxial cervical LMS were inserted in 40 consecutive patients. Surgical indications were cervical myelopathy and fractures. The screws’ size was 3.5 mm in diameter and 8 to 16 mm in length. During the insertion of the subaxial cervical LMS, the 3D navigation system was used for 20 patients, and the freehand technique was used for the remaining 20 patients. We reviewed the charts, X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, and follow-up notes for all the patients pre- and postoperatively.

Results Postoperative assessment showed that the incidence of VAI, SCI, and NRI were the same between the two groups. The CT scan analysis showed that the screw breakage, screw pull-outs, and screw loosening were the same between the two groups. LMF was less in the 3D navigation group but statistically insignificant. Screw malposition was less in the 3D navigation group compared with the freehand group and was statistically significant. The hospital stay, operative time, and blood loss were statistically insignificant between the two groups.

Conclusions The use of CT-based navigation in LMS insertion decreased the rate of screw malpositions as compared with the freehand technique. Further investigations and trials will determine the effect of malpositions on the c-spine biomechanics. The use of navigation in LMS insertion did not show a significant difference in VAI, LMF, SCI, or NRI as compared with the freehand technique.

Virtual reduction of acetabular fracture using the first patient-specific biomechanical model simulator

acetabular-fracture-column

Technical note Computer-assisted surgery in acetabular fractures: Virtual reduction of acetabular fracture using the first patient-specific biomechanical model simulator, by Boudissa, Oliveri, Chabanas, Tonetti, OTSR (2018)

Abstract

Preoperative planning for the management of acetabular fracture is founded on geometric models allowing virtual repositioning of the bone fragments, but not taking account of soft tissue and the realities of the surgical procedure. The present technical note reports results using the first simulator to be based on a patient-specific biomechanical model, simulating the action of forces on the fragments and also the interactions between soft issue and bone: muscles, capsules, ligaments, and bone contacts. In all 14 cases, biomechanical simulation faithfully reproduced the intraoperative behavior of the various bone fragments and reduction quality. On Matta’s criteria, anatomic reduction was achieved in 12 of the 14 patients (86%; 0.25 mm ± 0.45 [range: 0–1]) and in the 12 corresponding simulations (86%; 0.42 mm ± 0.51 [range: 0–1]). Mean semi-automatic segmentation time was 156 min ± 37.9 [range: 120–180]. Mean simulation time was 23 min ± 9 [range: 16–38]. The model needs larger-scale prospective validation, but offers a new tool suitable for teaching purposes and for assessment of surgical results in acetabular fracture.

Level of evidence
IV: retrospective study.

acetabular-fracture
Anterior view of patient-specific biomechanical model (case no. 3) before simulation (left) and after reduction simulation (middle), and posterior view of posteriorcolumn after reduction (right).

Computer-assisted individual drill guide template for minimally invasive lumbar pedicle screw placement trajectory

CIDGT-drill-guide

Feasibility and accuracy of computer-assisted individual drill guide template for minimally invasive lumbar pedicle screw placement trajectory, Wang, Hongwei et al. Injury (2018) published ahead of print.

Abstract

Objective
To discuss the feasibility and accuracy of a specific computer-assisted individual drill guide template (CIDGT) for minimally invasive lumbar pedicle screw placement trajectory (MI-LPT) through a bovine cadaveric experimental study.

Design
A 3-D reconstruction model, including lumbar vertebras (L1-L5), was generated, and the optimal MI-LPTs were determined. A drill guide template with a surface made of the antitemplate of the vertebral surface, including the spinous process and the entry point vertebral surface, was created by reverse engineering and rapid prototyping techniques. Then, MI-LPTs were determined by the drill guide templates, and the trajectories made by K-wires were observed by postoperative CT scan.

Setting
General Hospital of Shenyang Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.

Results
In total, 150 K-wires for MI-LPTs were successfully inserted into L1-L5. The required mean time and fluoroscopy times between fixation of the template to the spinous process, entry point vertebral surface, and insertion of the K-wires for minimally invasive lumbar pedicle screw placement trajectories into each vertebra were 79.4 ± 15.0 seconds and 2.1 ± 0.8 times. There were no significant differences between the preoperative plan and postoperative assessment in the distance from the puncture to the midline and inclination angles according to the different levels (P > 0.05, respectively). The mean deviation between the preoperative plan and postoperative assessment in the distance from the puncture to the midline and inclination angles were 0.8 ± 0.5 mm and 0.9 ± 0.5°, respectively.

Conclusions
The potential use of the novel CIDGT, which was based on the unique morphology of the lumbar vertebra to place minimally invasive lumbar pedicle screws, is promising and could prevent too much radiation exposure intraoperatively.

spine-3d-printed-mis
The computer vertebra biomodel and drill template were both manufactured in acrylate resin, using the stereolithography rapid prototyping technique

Robotic drill guide positioning in spine surgery using known-component 3D–2D image registration

Robotic drill guide positioning using known-component 3D–2D image registration, by Yi, Ramchandran, Siewerdsen, and Uneri, J. of Medical Imaging (2018), 5(2):021212.

Abstract:

A method for x-ray image-guided robotic instrument positioning is reported and evaluated in preclinical studies of spinal pedicle screw placement with the aim of improving delivery of transpedicle K-wires and screws. The known-component (KC) registration algorithm was used to register the three-dimensional patient CT and drill guide surface model to intraoperative two-dimensional radiographs. Resulting transformations, combined with offline hand–eye calibration, drive the robotically held drill guide to target trajectories defined in the preoperative CT. The method was assessed in comparison with a more conventional tracker-based approach, and robustness to clinically realistic errors was tested in phantom and cadaver. Deviations from planned trajectories were analyzed in terms of target registration error (TRE) at the tooltip (mm) and approach angle (deg). In phantom studies, the KC approach resulted in TRE = 1.51 ± 0.51 mm and 1.01 deg ± 0.92 deg, comparable with accuracy in tracker-based approach. In cadaver studies with realistic anatomical deformation, the KC approach yielded TRE = 2.31 ± 1.05 mm and 0.66 deg ± 0.62 deg, with statistically significant improvement versus tracker (TRE = 6.09 ± 1.22 mm and 1.06 deg ± 0.90 deg). Robustness to deformation is attributed to relatively local rigidity of anatomy in radiographic views. X-ray guidance offered accurate robotic positioning and could fit naturally within clinical workflow of fluoroscopically guided procedures.

New system of computer-assisted navigation leading to reduction in operating time in uncemented total hip replacement

A new system of computer-assisted navigation leading to reduction in operating time in uncemented total hip replacement in a matched population by Chaudhry, Ismail, and Davis, European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology (2018).

Abstract:

Computer-assisted navigation techniques are used to optimise component placement and alignment in total hip replacement. It has developed in the last 10 years but despite its advantages only 0.3% of all total hip replacements in England and Wales are done using computer navigation. One of the reasons for this is that computer-assisted technology increases operative time. A new method of pelvic registration has been developed without the need to register the anterior pelvic plane (BrainLab hip 6.0) which has shown to improve the accuracy of THR. The purpose of this study was to find out if the new method reduces the operating time. This was a retrospective analysis of comparing operating time in computer navigated primary uncemented total hip replacement using two methods of registration. Group 1 included 128 cases that were performed using BrainLab versions 2.1-5.1. This version relied on the acquisition of the anterior pelvic plane for registration. Group 2 included 128 cases that were performed using the newest navigation software, BrainLab hip 6.0 (registration possible with the patient in the lateral decubitus position). The operating time was 65.79 (40–98) minutes using the old method of registration and was 50.87 (33–74) minutes using the new method of registration. This difference was statistically significant. The body mass index (BMI) was comparable in both groups. The study supports the use of new method of registration in improving the operating time in computer navigated primary uncemented total hip replacements.

Treatment of sagittal fracture of the zygomatic arch root assisted by surgical navigation technology

Published ahead of print: Treatment of Sagittal Fracture of the Zygomatic Arch Root Assisted by Surgical Navigation Technology, by Dai et al. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery (2018).

Abstract:

Sagittal fracture at the temporal root of the zygomatic arch often occurs as a part of zygomaticomaxillary fractures. The authors described the application of computer-assisted navigation in the lag screw insertion for the fixation of sagittal fracture at the temporal root of zygomatic arch. Using the presurgical planning of the computer-assisted navigation system, the trajectory of lag screw insertion was designed, and the insertion depth was calculated. In the presurgical planning, the trajectory of screw insertion was placed with an anterior inclination of 10° to 15° (mean: 12.24°), and the screw insertion depth was 9.0 to 12.0 mm (mean: 10.65 mm). In the operation, the screw insertion in the fixation of the sagittal fracture was performed under the guidance of navigation system according to the presurgical planning. The postoperative CT scan showed exact reduction and fixation of the sagittal fracture in all cases. Computer-assisted navigation is a useful tool for the lag screw insertion in the precise fixation of sagittal fracture at the temporal root of the zygomatic arch in complex zygomaticomaxillary fractures.

zygomatic_navigation
(A) In the presurgical planning, the entry point (red point) and trajectory of screw insertion (red line) were designed in the mirrored zygomatic arch root, and the calculated screw insertion depth (yellow line) was 10.1mm in this case. (B) Registered surgical motor used for screw hole drilling. (C) The sagittal fractures at the zygomatic arch root. (D) Screw hole drilling according to presurgical planning under computer-assisted navigation, and the long axis of drill (yellow line) coincided with the designed trajectory (red line) in the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes. (E) Screw hole drilling performed with guidance of the computer-assisted navigation system.