The advent of 3D endoscope has revolutionized the field of industrial and medical inspection. It allows visual examination of inaccessible areas like underground pipes and human cavity. Miniature-sized objects like kidney stone and industrial waste products like slags can easily be monitored using 3D endoscope. In this paper, we present a technique to track small objects in 3D endoscopic vision using feature detectors. The proposed methodology uses the input of the operator to segment the target in order to extract reliable and stable features. Grow-cut algorithm is used for interactive segmentation to segment the object in one of the frames and later on, sparse correspondence is performed using SURF feature detectors. SURF feature detection based tracking algorithm is extended to track the object in the stereo endoscopic frames. The evaluation of the proposed technique is done by quantitatively analyzing its performance in two ex vivo environment and subjecting the target to various conditions like deformation, change in illumination, and scale and rotation transformation due to movement of endoscope.
Since the early 1970s, total knee arthroplasties have undergone many changes in both their design and their surgical instrumentation. It soon became apparent that to improve prosthesis durability, it was essential to have instruments which allowed them to be fitted reliably and consistently. Despite increasingly sophisticated surgical techniques, preoperative objectives were only met in 75% of cases, which led to the development, in the early 1990s, in Grenoble (France), of computer-assisted orthopaedic surgery for knee prosthesis implantation. In the early 2000s, many navigation systems emerged, some including pre-operative imagery (“CT-based”), others using intra-operative imagery (“fluoroscopy-based”), and yet others with no imagery at all (“imageless”), which soon became the navigation “gold standard”. They use an optoelectronic tracker, markers which are fixed solidly to the bones and instruments, and a navigation workstation (computer), with a control system (e.g. pedal). Despite numerous studies demonstrating the benefit of computer navigation in meeting preoperative objectives, such systems have not yet achieved the success they warrant, for various reasons we will be covering in this article. If the latest navigation systems prove to be as effective as the older systems, they should give this type of technology a well-deserved boost.