We present an efficient learning-based algorithm for deformable, pairwise 3D medical image registration. Current registration methods optimize an energy function independently for each pair of images, which can be time-consuming for large data. We define registration as a parametric function, and optimize its parameters given a set of images from a collection of interest. Given a new pair of scans, we can quickly compute a registration field by directly evaluating the function using the learned parameters. We model this function using a CNN, and use a spatial transform layer to reconstruct one image from another while imposing smoothness constraints on the registration field. The proposed method does not require supervised information such as ground truth registration fields or anatomical landmarks. We demonstrate registration accuracy comparable to state-of-the-art 3D image registration, while operating orders of magnitude faster in practice. Our method promises to significantly speed up medical image analysis and processing pipelines, while facilitating novel directions in learning-based registration and its applications. Our code is available at this https URL
We present our work investigating the feasibility of combining intraoperative ultrasound for brain shift correction and augmented reality (AR) visualization for intraoperative interpretation of patient-specific models in image-guided neurosurgery (IGNS) of brain tumors. We combine two imaging technologies for image-guided brain tumor neurosurgery. Throughout surgical interventions, AR was used to assess different surgical strategies using three-dimensional (3-D) patient-specific models of the patient’s cortex, vasculature, and lesion. Ultrasound imaging was acquired intraoperatively, and preoperative images and models were registered to the intraoperative data. The quality and reliability of the AR views were evaluated with both qualitative and quantitative metrics. A pilot study of eight patients demonstrates the feasible combination of these two technologies and their complementary features. In each case, the AR visualizations enabled the surgeon to accurately visualize the anatomy and pathology of interest for an extended period of the intervention. Inaccuracies associated with misregistration, brain shift, and AR were improved in all cases. These results demonstrate the potential of combining ultrasound-based registration with AR to become a useful tool for neurosurgeons to improve intraoperative patient-specific planning by improving the understanding of complex 3-D medical imaging data and prolonging the reliable use of IGNS.