Mid-term Survivorship and Patient Satisfaction of Robotic-Arm Assisted Medial Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty: A Multicenter Study by Kleeblad et al., Arthroplasty (2018), in press, accepted manuscript.
Studies have showed improved accuracy of lower leg alignment, precise component position, and soft-tissue balance with robotic-assisted unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). No studies, however, have assessed the effect on mid-term survivorship. Therefore, the purpose of this prospective multicenter study was to determine mid-tem survivorship, modes of failure, and satisfaction of robotic-assisted medial UKA.
473 consecutive patients (528 knees) underwent robotic-arm assisted medial UKA surgery at four separate institutions between March 2009 and December 2011. All patients received a fixed-bearing metal-backed onlay tibial component. Each patient was contacted at minimum five-year follow-up and asked a series of questions to determine survival and satisfaction. Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine survivorship.
Data was collected for 384 patients (432 knees) with mean follow-up of 5.7 years (5.0 – 7.7). The follow-up rate was 81.2%. In total, 13 revisions were performed, of which 11 knees were converted to TKA and in two cases one UKA component was revised, resulting in 97% survivorship. The mean time to revision was 2.27 years. The most common failure mode was aseptic loosening (7/13). Fourteen reoperations were reported. Of all unrevised patients, 91% was either very satisfied or satisfied with their knee function.
Robotic-arm assisted medial UKA showed high survivorship and satisfaction at mid-term follow-up in this prospective multicenter study. However, in spite of the robotic technique, early fixation failure remains the primary cause for revision with cemented implants. Comparative studies are necessary to confirm these findings and compare to conventional implanted UKA and TKA.
A new system of computer-assisted navigation leading to reduction in operating time in uncemented total hip replacement in a matched population by Chaudhry, Ismail, and Davis, European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology (2018).
Computer-assisted navigation techniques are used to optimise component placement and alignment in total hip replacement. It has developed in the last 10 years but despite its advantages only 0.3% of all total hip replacements in England and Wales are done using computer navigation. One of the reasons for this is that computer-assisted technology increases operative time. A new method of pelvic registration has been developed without the need to register the anterior pelvic plane (BrainLab hip 6.0) which has shown to improve the accuracy of THR. The purpose of this study was to find out if the new method reduces the operating time. This was a retrospective analysis of comparing operating time in computer navigated primary uncemented total hip replacement using two methods of registration. Group 1 included 128 cases that were performed using BrainLab versions 2.1-5.1. This version relied on the acquisition of the anterior pelvic plane for registration. Group 2 included 128 cases that were performed using the newest navigation software, BrainLab hip 6.0 (registration possible with the patient in the lateral decubitus position). The operating time was 65.79 (40–98) minutes using the old method of registration and was 50.87 (33–74) minutes using the new method of registration. This difference was statistically significant. The body mass index (BMI) was comparable in both groups. The study supports the use of new method of registration in improving the operating time in computer navigated primary uncemented total hip replacements.
Current Role of Computer Navigation in Total Knee Arthroplasty, by Christopher W. Jones and Seth A. Jerabek, AAHKS Symposium (Accepted manuscript, in press).
Computer-assisted surgical (CAS) navigation has been developed with the aim of improving the accuracy and precision of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) component positioning and therefore overall limb alignment. The historical goal of knee arthroplasty has been to restore the mechanical alignment of the lower limb by aligning the femoral and tibial components perpendicular to the mechanical axis of the femur and tibia. Despite over four decades of TKA component development and nearly two decades of interest in CAS, the fundamental question remains; does the alignment goal and/or the method of achieving that goal affect the outcome of the TKA in terms of patient reported outcome measures and/or overall survivorship? The quest for reliable and reproducible achievement of the intra-operative alignment goal has been the primary motivator for the introduction, development and refinement of CAS navigation. Numerous proprietary systems now exist and rapid technological advancements in computer processing power are stimulating further development of robotic surgical systems. Three categories of CAS can be defined; image-based large console navigation; imageless large-console navigation and more recently, accelerometer based hand-held navigation systems have been developed.
A review of the current literature demonstrates that there are enough well-designed studies to conclude that both large-console CAS and handheld navigation systems improve the accuracy and precision of component alignment in TKA. However, missing from the evidence base, other than the subgroup analysis provided by the AOANJRR, are any conclusive demonstrations of a clinical superiority in terms of improved patient reported outcome measures and/or decreased cumulative revision rates in the long term. Few authors would argue that accuracy of alignment is a goal to ignore, therefore in the absence of clinical evidence, many of the arguments against the use of large console CAS navigation centre on the prohibitive cost of the systems. The utilization of low-cost, handheld CAS navigation systems may therefore bridge this important gap and over time, further clinical evidence may emerge